朱恐龍
朱恐龍

在下一個愛滋病與禽流感發生之前阻止它? (16335 views)
     

我很喜歡看Wired雜誌,裡面經常有一些有趣且極有創意的內容,所以我準備以後每個月都介紹至少一篇裡面的內容,讓大家可以享受一下精彩的好雜誌。(網址是:http://www.wired.com/除了雜誌之外的每天即時新聞也是看不完),不過我總覺得雜誌比較棒一點。這篇是取自於五月號「第一滴血」(First Blood),網址是這個:

AIDS、HIV:人類後天免疫不全症候群:人類傷亡六千三百萬人。其病毒可能於1930年由猩猩傳染病變種而轉為人傳人的疾病。

SARS:嚴重急性呼吸道症候群:在二○○二年十一月首次於中國出現,該種冠狀病毒讓患者發高燒及染上致命肺炎。其後八個月內,SARS感染超過八千人,並分別在二十六個國家造成七百七十四人死亡。「果子狸SARS病毒是人類SARS病毒的前身,科學家經過研究認為,果子狸是最主要的SARS易感宿主,但可能不是唯一的自然宿主。」(蝙蝠也有可能)

EBOLA:一周內讓人類體內器官液化、大量出血,致死率幾達百分之百,1970年代在非洲奪去六百條人命。一九九五年,在扎伊爾再度出現,感染人數高達三百一十六人,二百四十五人死亡。Ebola病毒確切的起源,地點和自然環境仍然未知。但是,根據已知證據和相似的病毒的本質,研究員相信,病毒是zoonotic (動物傳播)通常寄生在非洲大陸當地的的動物身上。Ebola-Reston很可能是通過從菲律賓進口被傳染的cynomolgous猴子帶入到美國和義大利。

西班牙感冒:第一次世界大戰於一九一八年結束,戰後返鄉的軍人將流感病毒傳播至世界各地。受感染人數以億計,差不多佔全球人口的一半。短短一年間,奪去二千萬至五千萬人性命。大部分西班牙流感死亡個案,均為二十至五十歲健康成年人。美國科學家經過基因研究發現,一九一八年全球大流感的病毒乃源自禽鳥,更與目前在亞太地區出現的H5N1禽流感病毒擁有類同的基因變異。

黑死病(Black Death):一般認為黑死病是由齧齒目動物傳染至人類。一三四七年至五二年間,黑死病橫掃歐洲大陸,造成約二千五百萬人死亡,接近歐洲總人口三分一。

禽流感:H5N1病毒存在於被感染鳥的唾液,黏膜和糞便中,而且其他的鳥可以通過與這些物質或被他們污染的物體的接觸而感染病毒。H5N1 對於鳥類而言極具傳染性和致命性,不過只有頻繁接觸病鳥的人類才會被傳染。但是,它對人類的健康非常有害,而且病毒本身易於變異成可以進行人間傳染的病毒。一旦開始大流行,很多專家擔心會像是西班牙流感一樣造成數百萬人死傷。

這些曾經讓人類或可能即將讓人類傷亡慘重的疾病之間有什麼相同之處?眼尖的讀者應該都看出來了。他們幾乎都是從動物之間的傳染病突變而來的。靈長類、齧齒目、家禽、蝙蝠通通都是可能的對象。而且正因為它從動物身上突變而來,人類更是猝不及防,來不及演化出對其的免疫力和對抗能力。AIDS不過是其中的一個例子,但下一個禽流感、下一個AIDS隨時都有可能會發生,我們有沒有可能在他發生前阻止呢?

有的。UCLA的生物學家Nathan Wolfe就正在非洲叢林裡面進行這樣的工作。從動物傳染病變異為人類傳染病的數量大概佔了人類傳染病的四分之三。但過去的研究多半都在歷史方向上,推測已經出現的傳染病如何發生,(這門學問叫做Zoonoses)透過什麼途徑。但如果我們能在這些疾病快要轉成人類傳染病之前阻止它呢?如果我們能夠讓當年從猩猩血液傳染到這病毒的獵人小心一點呢?

Nathan Wolfe不在叢林裡時拍的照片

所以,Nathan Wolfe從1999年在喀麥隆和剛果共和國開始的計畫牽扯到了兩個不同的切入角度:第一個是針對獵人的宣導,讓他們可以用更安全的方式處理和攜帶獵物,甚至包括了用塑膠袋妥善包裹獵物之後再背上肩,而不是像以前一樣直接把流著鮮血的獵物扛在自己赤裸的背上,一旦有傷口,就很容易被感染。所以,第一步是到各個部落去宣導和發給他們可以安全處理獵物的配備。

影片:
非洲獵人製造武器:http://www.wired.com/science/planetearth/multimedia/2007/04/magfirstblood
非洲獵人設置陷阱:http://www.wired.com/science/planetearth/multimedia/2007/04/magfirstblood2

第二個則是給予這些獵人收集獵物血液用的試紙,讓他們可以收集獵物的血液。透過後續一連串的方式(包括當地的研究者要替這些獵人抽血和化驗,調查是否有危險的傳染病)來進行測試,更高階的檢驗則是到美國的亞特蘭大、巴爾地摩和洛杉磯的疾病預防中心或是國家級的實驗室來檢測,生物學家們希望能夠透過這樣的研究明白病毒變異的模式,並進而來預測或是阻止那些正要成形的傳染病,從而可能拯救成千上萬的人命……
圖片:研究病毒和資訊收集的傳遞方式:

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迴響(146)

迴響 from: Azed [訪問者]
[我很喜歡看Wired雜誌,裡面經常有一些有趣且極有創意的內容,所以我準備以後每個月都介紹至少一篇裡面的內容,讓大家可以享受一下精彩的好雜誌。]
感謝!!! 您的資訊分享

期待---> 會不會久了就"放鴿子假" Ha! Ha!
2007-06-10 @ 21:34
迴響 from: 朱恐龍 [成員]
至少本月不會哈哈哈~~~

我五月那本還沒看完哪!

Lucifer
2007-06-10 @ 22:11
迴響 from: Azed [訪問者]
說真的...雖然懂得一些英文,但閱讀起來還須花費更多時間,實在沒有"前輩"來的專業,所以才會說感謝 您的資訊分享
更覺得{開放課程計劃}是個很好的分享知識資源,持續為此加油打氣中!!!
2007-06-11 @ 00:01
迴響 from: Azed [訪問者]
您是在"放鴿子假"吧!
不過請繼續為發揚"宅之道"努力吧
2007-09-06 @ 01:19
迴響 from: IOL [訪問者]
*****
那路過迴響一下好了
反正大家都喜歡搶前十

以上!
2009-02-16 @ 17:12
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搶一下
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回補一下
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趕快推
2009-02-17 @ 00:20
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會來補回這篇證明我是非常無聊的阿宅
這麼好的內容不回真是太可惜了,連點閱數都很少。
所以在這理評個最高分來安慰一下XD
2009-02-17 @ 00:31
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人生第一次啊
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樓上這些可恥的臭阿宅!

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何止四個!
快推一把!
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科科~
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迴響 from: 卡倫斯 [訪問者]
歸咎原因:

這麼動人有趣的話題
一定要找個正妹值星官代言的啦!
超大圖+大溼拍的正妹

怎麼可能留言不破兩位數!

另...07年的你的圖還沒那麼大
是在08年長胖的 ?_?
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Wired網站的東西還蠻有趣的 可是看一看不知道為什麼很容易就會分心 常常要分好幾次看 = =
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